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ILLINOIS HISTORICAL SURVlY 



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THE UNIVERSITY IN ITS COMMUNITY 



COUNTRY CLUB RD 




NASHIK 
101 



Fall 1970 

Office of Public Infonnatioii 

Universify of Illinois af Urbana-Champaign 



IlLINOIS K!STCRICAl SURV£]f 



THE GOWN IN TOWN 
The University in Its Community 

The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has more 
than 90 separate programs that deal with such basic social problems 
as poverty/ racial discrimination, insufficient education, unequal 
job opportunities and substandard housing. 

These programs are a part of a concerted effort of the 
imiversity to assist those who need it to develop themselves fully 
in our competitive system. 

As a result of administrative decisions aimed at expanding 
educational and service opportunities, a number of colleges, 
departments and agencies have developed significant programs. 

Some of these programs, such as the academic Special Educational 
Opportunities Program, were initiated at the campus or university 
level. Others are developed at other academic levels--by colleges, 
departments, schools, divisions or other units. 

A class may sponsor a project, such as the Douglass Center 
Branch Library developed by a graduate class in library science. 

Other programs may be sponsored by university clubs and 
organizations. Volunteer Illini Projects is run entirely by students. 

Concerned people on the campus — from the administration, the 
faculty, the staff and the student body — are becoming increasingly 
involved in these and other service programs, both as individuals and 
as institutional representatives. 

They serve on local committees, join local organizations and 
otherwise offer their individual expertise and abilities. Although 




:he university may not be officially involved at the beginning, this 
type of participation often leads to recognized programs or projects. 

At least eight major goals have been identified with these 
programs : 

— To increase higher educational opportunities for the 
educationally and economically disadvantaged. 

— To overcome educational deficits and problems in the community, 
working with preschool, primary, secondary and adult education, 

— To provide university students with an opportunity to learn 
directly from the disadvantaged. 

— To develop programs which will be more effective in the 
education of both the disadvantaged and the advantaged. 

— To develop and provide services to aid more effectively the 
disadvantaged. 

— To augment cultural and social experiences while opening 
avenues of communication. 

— To develop leadership capabilities of black students and 
members of the black community. 

— To discover and respond to the roots of racial discrimination 
on the campus and in the whole community. 

These programs are all part of the university's mission. Each 
serves at least one of the three inter-related functions of the 
university: education, research and service. 

Although the programs discussed in this pamphlet are placed 
in one of the three categories for convenience, in reality there is 
a great deal of overlap of programs and categories. 



3. 



ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH EDUCATION 
Higher Education 

Many programs are designed to assist the self-development 
of the educationally disadvantaged. 

At the university level they seek to increase higher 
education opportunities for the economically and educationally 
disadvantaged. These and other programs provide university 
students with the opportunity to learn directly from the disadvantaged, 
either through field experience or class projects. 
1. Increasing Higher Education Opportunities 

Under the Special Educational Opportunities Program (SEOP) 
the university recruits high school graduates who are financially 
disadvantaged and who meet admission requirements although their 
schooling did not prepare them for the level of academic competition 
which presently exists at the U. of I. 

SEOP students receive three types of assistance: academic, 
supportive and financial. This assistance is available to all 
U. of I. students who need it, whether or not they participate in 
the program. The Special Educational Opportunities Program coordinates 
these university services in developing a package best suited for 
each student's individual needs. 

Special sections of many basic freshman- sophomore courses 
are offered to help overcome academic deficiencies of students who 
were either "counseled out" as not "college material" or did not 



have the subject offered in their high school. A second general 
area of academic support is that of additional academic advising 
through the college offices. 

Four major types of supportive services are available to 
the SEOP student: (1) assessment of his ability through academic 
testing by the Student Counseling Service; (2) provisions for 
the improvement of reading, writing and study skills through expanded 
use of the reading clinic and the writing laboratory; (3) development 
of a student tutoring system; and (4) development of special programs 
designed to respond to the unique needs of SEOP students as they attempt 
to acclimate to academic life of the Urbana-Champaign campus. 

Four general types of financial aid are available for SEOP 
and other needy students. The Educational Opportunity Grant and 
Illinois State Scholarships provide non-repayable grants and 
scholarships. Repayable long-term loans are available through 
the National Defense Education Act/ the Illinois Guaranteed Loan 
Program, and similar programs. Financial aid is also provided from 
the university's own resources, through the Martin Luther King, Jr. 
Memorial Fund, the University of Illinois Foundation and the Students 
for Equal Access to Learning program. The fourth type is student 
employment . 

The number of new students that can be admitted each year 
has been limited by the number of qualified applicants and the 
availability of federal and state aid. A total of 601 students 
enrolled during the 1968-69 year, with an additional 276 in 1969-70. 
Approximately 300-325 more will be admitted through the program in 
1970-71. 



The College of Education and the College of Commerce and 
Business Administration have developed programs in conjunction with 
the Special Educational Opportunities Program. 

This summer 17 minority students participated in the 
pre-college summer education program in the College of Commerce and 
Business Administration. The program for the new SEOP students 
was co-sponsored by 17 Illinois business corporations. 

The ten-week simimer program includes nine weeks of pre-college 
education and training on this campus and one week of more detailed 
acquaintance with the particular firm sponsoring each student. 

The College of Education developed the Alternate Teacher 
Education Program to increase the opportunity for students interested 
in the field and to develop an undergraduate teacher training program 
for teachers of the disadvantaged. 

Under the Alternate Teacher Education Program, assignments 
and emphasis are coordinated in the core courses of education, history 
and philosophy of education, and rhetoric. In addition to the regular 
class schedule, each student works in a public school for four hours 
per week. Traditionally, school experience was reserved for the last 
semester of teacher training programs. The early experience under 
this new program provides a context for educational theory and gives 
the students an earlier orientation from the viewpoint of the school. 

Groundwork for the Special Educational Opportunities Program 
was laid by a summer experimental program of the College of Liberal 
Arts and Sciences for 20 youths in the summer of 1965. Lessons 
learned through this program expedited the development of SEOP plans. 



SEOP is not the only program on campus aimed at increasing 
educational opportunity. Special financial aid is made available 
to students in law and library science. 

U. of I. Trustee W. Clement Stone recently announced a 
program which will make one and a half million dollars available for 
disadvantaged students to pursue the study of law on this campus. 
The program will provide financial assistance for three classes of 
25 new students each year for three years, beginning this fall. 

Under the program, designated the Illinois Equal Opportunity 
Law Fellowship Program, the W. Clement & Jesse V. Stone Foundation 
will provide up to $500,000, and nine participating banks — including 
five Champaign banks — will provide approximately $1 million in 
federally guaranteed student loans to help them with living expenses 
while living in school. 

Twelve graduate students are enrolled in the first year of 
the Scholarship Program in Library Science for Members of Minority 
Groups. The program provides tax-free stipends of $2,000 for the 
academic year, $500 for the first summer, plus tuition and fee waivers 
for up to two years plus one summer. Approximately 12 per year will 
be admitted under this program, depending on the availability of funds. 
2. Field Experience in Working With the Disadvantaged 

The Jane Addams Graduate School of Social Work maintains a 
Field Learning Center next door to the Champaign County Family Service 
Office. Here the graduate students in social work become involved in 
marital and family counseling, homemaker services and family life 
education. They work closely with area nursing homes, hospitals, the 
county rehabilitation center and the Urban League. 



In addition to the experience the students receive, the 
center also brings the latest theory from the university setting 
to the agency in the field for testing and adoption. 

Students in the College of Law receive academic credit 
for their participation in the Public Defender, State's Attorney 
and Legal Aid programs. Under all three programs the second- and 
third-year law students work eight to ten hours per week in the 
local offices under the direct supervision of agency attorneys. 
They aid the attorneys by interviewing clients, researching 
questions of law, preparing motions and briefs, and sometimes 
actually trying cases. 

During the summer several law students also participated 
in community involvement programs in Urbana-Champaign and in 
Chicago. In this community they worked for the local legal service 
agency and various family service agencies. Those who qualified 
were paid through the Federal Work-Study Program. In Chicago they 
worked as summer VISTA lawyers for Community Legal Counsel of Chicago, 
an organization which provides legal assistance and representation 
to local community action organizations in that city. 

Law students enrolled in the regularly offered courses in 
Family Law and Psychiatry also receive some clinical experience. 
These courses place a limited number of students in agencies which 
deal with problems related to the academic problems being studied. 



Approximately 50 U. of I students participated in the 
Slammer recreation programs of the Champaign and Urbana park 
districts. Most of them worked as playground leaders and 
recreation directors, although some helped out in maintenance work 
or as lifeguards. A few worked in Urbana 's day camp program. 
All students received pay for this work. In addition, some 
received academic credit for field work. 

Students in architecture, urban planning, landscape 
architecture, interior design and engineering gain field experience 
through the Community Advocacy Depot (CAD) . The depot was 
organized by the local poor community to provide the necessary 
professional and technical expertise required in the solution of 
their problems, especially housing and social problems. Control 
of CAD remains with the poor black and poor white communities. 
The depot works through the university departments in obtaining 
the help it needs for its projects. Whether or not the students receive 
academic credit for their work with the depot is detearmined by their 
college or department. 

Closely related to CAD is the Afro-American Consolidated 
Contractors organization. U. of I. students, especially those in 
architecture and engineering, help this group of new black businessmen 
in learning the technicalities of preparing bid documents, making 
estimates, etc. 

As a part of their studies, university home economics students 
in child development work with the children at the Community Day Care 
Center as well as thost: in the nursery schools at the Child Development 
Laboratory. 



9. 



Although the program requirements generally preclude 
disadvantaged youth from participating in the Child Development 
Laboratory nursery schools, the laboratory does provide community 
service through workshops, tours and short courses. 

Nursery schools for the disadvantaged were held at the 
Child Development Laboratory the spring before the Head Start 
Program was initiated in this community. The director of the 
laboratory has been a consultant to the national Head Start Program 
in Washington, D. C, since the program began. She is also on 
the board of the Community Day Care Center. 

Graduate students in the Leadership Training Program for 
Administrators of Preschool Programs for the Disadvantaged receive 
training and field experience through several projects of the 
Special Education Department at the Col. Wolfe School. 

Many students receive no academic credit for their volunteer 
work. Yet they receive valuable experience through working with 
Volunteer Illini Projects (VIP), the PAL program of the University 
YMCA and other organizations in the university community. 

Through VIP students gain experience as tutors, as teachers' 
aides recreation leaders, team teachers and discussion leaders, and 
social workers. They work with youth; with the emotionally disturbed 
and retarded, both young and old; with adults studying at the 
Opportunities Industrial Center, and with the aged in the nursing homes. 



10. 



A variety of programs are coordinated through the Office 
of Student Programs and Services, which will provide staff support 
next year for Campus Volunteer Services. Many projects under 
SPAS are service- or culturally-oriented, aimed at opening 
communications with the black community. 

University faculty members participate as individuals in 
many community organizations and projects. Although this may not 
be part of their official duties as members of the faculty, this 
participation often has a direct impact on their teaching and research 
and may grow into field experience for their students or even into 
a class project. 
3. Class Projects 

A graduate class of nine library students wanted to do 
something practical about library service to the disadvantaged. 
Because of their project, a community library will open some time 
this fall at the Douglass Community Center. 

Original plans called for a small library of paperbacks/ 
financed with the $3,000 available to the class through the library 
school. But local response and enthusiasm resulted in a successful 
request for $62,000 in federal funds for the first two years' operation, 
after which financial responsibility will be assumed by the Champaign 
and Urbana Public Libraries. The library will be staffed by community 
people and headed by a professional director selected by the community. 



11. 



The community has also benefited from industrial design 
class projects. Student-designed and mass-produced toys were 
distributed to local children through VISTA last year. For 
its spring project the class tackled the problem of developing 
uses for disposable materials, which could be beneficial to 
anyone on a tight budget. 

Under a new course in the College of Law students may 
participate in the actual trial of cases before the Federal 
District Court in Danville. Students will assist the professor 
in the litigation of cases in which he is presently engaged. Neither 
the professor nor the students will receive any remuneration for 
their participation in the cases used in the course. 

Adult and Continuing Education 
Several programs are aimed at helping people upgrade or 

acquire skills or knowledge so that they can improve their lives 

in this community. 

These programs center around developing and improving 

skills and knowledge in fours areas: nutrition, child care, local 

enterprise and employment. The fourth area will be discussed later 

in the pamphlet, 

1. Nutrition 

Nutrition programs seek to improve the family diet by better 

utilizing the resources available. During the past year and a half 

the U. of I. has made a concentrated statewide effort in this area 

with the Expanded Nutrition Program, sponsored by the Cooperative 

Extension Service in the College of Agriculture. 



12. 



Studies showed that the 307 Urbana-Champaign families 
enrolled in the program improved their original family diets by 
15 per cent by the end of the first year. 

Utilizing community leaders as program assistants, the 
program shows the poor better and more economical ways of buying 
food, planning meals and preparing the food. Lessons taught by 
the program assistants in the weekly classes also include the 
role that various foods play in the diet, money management and 
other features of interest and need to the homemakers. 

Kitchen eguipnent for the classes at the Francis Nelson 
Health Center, the Wilbur Heights Community Center and the Extension 
Office was furnished by the County Extension Homemakers Association. 

A second nutrition project. Nutrition for Mother and Baby, 
is sponsored by Home Economics Education. Weekly classes are 
held for pregnant women and community leaders interested in working 
with these new mothers. Transportation and lunch are included as 
part of the class. 

A third nutrition project, also sponsored by the Champaign 
County Cooperative Extension Service and the College of Agriculture, 
is a garden project helping the poor grow some of their own food. 

Working with the Black Coalition, the extension staff 
helped the new gardeners borrow the necessary farm equipment and 
plant the garden. The County Agricultural Extension Council provided 
money for seeds, plants and fertilizer. 



13. 



After the harvest the program assistants plan to teach 
the people canning and preserving methods so that they might 
preserve the produce not used as fresh vegetables. 
2. Child Care 

Mothers in low income families often have limited education 
and limited awareness of the problems associated with preparing 
children for successful participation in school. 

To help these mothers develop new knowledge and skills 
the Department of Special Education has organized a program in 
Teaching Mothers to Teach Their Infants. First initiated in the 
fall of 1967, the program works with mothers with low incomes who 
have infants between the ages of 12-23 months. 

According to the program each mother (1) participates in 
weekly group meetings where she learns how to teach her child at 
home, (2) teaches her infant for 15 minutes to an hour a day, and 
(3) works with a home visitor who visits her at home once a week 
and helps her with any individual problems that she has had with 
the child. 

Four mothers who participated felt the program was so 
important that they set up sub-programs in the housing areas. 
According to observations the children developed greater increases 
in attention span and eagerness for learning through the program. 

A second program sponsored by the department at the Col. Wolfe 
School is its Training Program for Mothers of Three-Year-Old 
Disadvantaged Children, which emphasizes both mother-child education 
and mother-centered activities. 



14, 



Under this program the mothers attend weekly meetings to 
obtain materials and information on how to be more effective 
teachers of their children at home. These are followed by- 
weekly home visits where she can be observed teaching her child 
and receive additional help. 

Mother-centered activities come under the headings of 
occupational enhancement and participation in the life of the 
community . 
3. Local Enterprise 

Two projects in Urbana-Champaign are aimed at helping the 
disadvantaged develop their own businesses. Both local projects 
are sponsored by the black community, with the university furnishing 
professional guidance and assistance when requested. 

Faculty members of the College of Commerce and Business 
Administration work with representatives of the Progress Association 
for Economic Development (PAED) in its formation as a profit 
corporation and in its proposed Entrepreneurial Development Training 
Center (EDTC) . 

The college will provide tutorial sessions for PAED officials 
taking the Illinois security dealers examination and also provide 
lectures and assistance as requested by the EDTC. 

Through its faculty and students the university has helped 
the Community Advocacy Depot and the Afro-American Consolidated 
Contractors organization by providing technical and professional 
assistance as requested. This includes helping these organizations 
obtain funding for their projects. 



15. 



Preschool, Primary and Secondairy Education 

Increasing opportunities for higher education requires the 
prevention or reversal of academic deficiencies. Some programs 
work toward preventing these deficiencies or seek to overcome them 
before a youngster reaches the college level. 

As an institution which is preparing students as future 
teachers, principals and administrators, the university has a 
vital interest and a natural vehicle in the prevention and solution 
of these educational problems. 

The university operates two laboratory schools: the 
Washington Laboratory School in Champaign and University High School 
in Urbana. 

The Washington Laboratory School is a cooperative venture 
with the Champaign Unit 4 School District which was launched to 
provide high quality programs in a racially and socio-economically 
integrated environment and, at the same time, to develop and test 
improved instructional materials and techniques. 

University High School is used to develop and test new 
instructional materials and techniques at the high school level. 

Programs developed at the two laboratory schools may be 
adopted by community schools to improve their instruction. 

There are two types of programs for the economically and 
educationally disadvantaged youth: tutoring or other special 
educational programs and youth-oriented cultural and social activities. 



16. 



1. Tutoring and Special Education 

Individual tutoring is available through two groups: 
Volunteer Illini Projects and the summer tutorial project of the 
Afro-American Commission. 

During the school year the tutors often work in the local 
schools, taking the children out of homerooms, study halls and 
classes. They may also work with the youths in their homes after 
school in the evenings. 

This tutoring is available in whatever areas the students 
need; major deficiencies are in reading and arithmetic. 

In order to better represent the population of the community, 
University High School accepted a class of students who were 
slightly below the average achievement level of its sub-freshman 
class. This special class included both blacks and whites with 
the same entrance patterns. 

This group of 16, although they would rank above average 
in their home schools, still require special help in mathematics 
and English. The university's Reading Clinic is helping those who 
need it. This help will continue at least through the freshman year. 

The program just completed its first year, but this group 
appears to be developing into superior students through the special 
courses. They are holding their own with other University High 
students in social studies and science classes. 

In the future some of the methods developed here may be 
applied in the local grade and high schools. 



17. 



The Champaign County Expanded Nutrition Program, mentioned 
earlier for adults, was recently expanded to teaching nutrition to 
youth. Each program assistant is responsible for organizing groups 
of children between the ages of 6 and 19 into nutrition clubs. 
The clubs are led by adult volunteers who are given special training 
in nutrition by the program assistants. There are four clubs 
currently under way with the youngsters being taught nutrition, 
leadership and citizenship. 

Four programs at the Col. Wolfe School, in addition to the 
two mentioned earlier, are aimed at special education of 
disadvantaged youth. 

Through a summer project, titled The Training of Teenagers 
to Tutor Their Young, Disadvantaged Siblings, young teenagers, aged 
11-14, teach their younger brothers and sisters, from 2-4 years old. 
The older youths attend weekly meetings in groups of three to four 
and are observed weekly working with their young brothers and 
sisters in the home. 

In addition to the educational benefits provided for the 
younger children, this program is also valuable to the teenagers 
in showing them how to accept responsibilities and in providing them 
with positive contacts in a working relationship with members of the 
university community. 

This fall Col. Wolfe is operating a Cooperative Dual 
Kindergarten with the Champaign Unit 4 Schools. The four classes 
for five-year-old disadvantaged children provide experience for 
trainees in the Leadership Training Program for Administrators of 
Preschool Programs for the Disadvantaged as well as provide the 
children with the opportunity to improve their preparation for school. 



18. 



A Model Program for the Early Education of Handicapped 
Children from all socio-economic levels began operations at the 
Col. Wolfe School this fall. The children, ages 3-5, have 
primary handicapping conditions (hard of hearing, deaf, speech 
impaired, visually handicapped, seriously emotionally disturbed, 
crippled, or other health impairments) and function in the mentally 
retarded range. 

This project is a joint effort of the U. of I. Department of 
Special Education, the Urbana and Champaign public schools and the 
State of Illinois Department of Public Instruction. 

The fourth Col. Wolfe program, the Hoopeston Model Program 
for the Early Education of Migrant Children, financed by the 
Illinois Migrant Council, involved 90 children ranging from infancy 
through 5 years old. 

A total of 65 high school students participated in this 
summer's Upward Bound program. Upward Bound is a pre-college 
program for low income students, designed for high school students 
who have the ability to be successful college students but are now 
receiving average or low grades in high school or otherwise are 
not expected to have an opportunity to go to college in the future. 

The program lasts for three summers and two school terms. 
Summers are spent on the U. of I. campus, where all Upward Bound 
students attend classes in English, mathematics and speech. Elective 
courses in psychology, history, typing, sewing, and arts and crafts 
are also available. 

During his junior and senior years in high school the 
Upwa'rd Bound student attends Saturday morning classes on the 
U. of I. campus. 



19, 



There is no cost to the students, who receive $7.50 
per week spending money during the summer sessions on campus and 
$15 per month during the school year/ as long as they remain 
active in the program. 

The Junior Engineering Technical Society of the College 
of Engineering sponsors a two-week summer program in engineering 
for youth from the inner city. Although the program was set up 
primarily for Chicago and East St. Louis youth, it is open to 
interested youths from the community. 

Each summer for the past three years the School of Chemical 
Sciences in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences has 
participated in the Catalyst program of the American Chemical 
Society. The program brings promising high school students from 
disadvantaged families into university chemistry laboratories 
where they work for two months with professional scientists. The 
program, partially financed through a grant from the ACS, is 
designed to motivate disadvantaged young people and give them 
the incentive to continue their education. 

Last summer two seniors from Centennial High School 
participated in the program. One was financed by the national 
society and one by the local chapter. 

Four Urbana-Champaign high school boys worked with electricians 
through the Sxommer Youth Program in the Trades, sponsored by the 
local electrician's union and the university. Under the program 



20. 



two youths worked with electricians in the university's operations 
and maintenance division and two with local contractors. 

The program gives the youths a summer job, knowledge about 
opportunities in the construction trades and motivation to complete 
high school. The high school diploma is required for entrance to 
many apprentice programs. 

This program may be expanded into other trades in the future. 
2. Activities Oriented to Youth 

Several programs are aimed at the cultural and social 
education of disadvantaged youth in Urbana-Champaign. 

The Division of University Extension held art and music 
classes at community centers and local schools through the 
Northside Project, which was terminated last spring because of 
the lack of funds. 

During its one and a half years Northside Project sponsored 
art classes at the Douglass Center and the Martin Luther King and 
Gregory Schools and guitar classes at the two schools. 

A group of 80 4-H junior leaders, including four from 
Champaign County, this summer led a day camp for 80 disadvantaged 
youth — 40 from Urbana-Champaign and 40 from Decatur. The day at 
the 4-H camp in Monticello was filled with nutrition-education 
games, group singing, sports, swimming, boating, hiking and concluded 
with a cookout near the lake. 



21. 



This day camp is an indication of the new direction of 4-H. 
Many 4-H clubs are developing urban-oriented programs. A group 
of U. of I. students have organized and are leading two clubs in 
the Wilbur Heights area. 

Sesame Street, a popular children's program aimed at the 
disadvantaged preschooler, is televised on WILL-TV twice daily 
during the school year. 

Many projects of VIP are aimed at helping the youth's 
cultural and social education. These include recreation projects 
at Beardsley School, Crystal Lake Park, Cunningham Home, Martin 
Luther King School, Marquette School and the Adler Zone Center; 
working with Girl Scouts and the Wilbur Heights 4-H clubs; 
Project Friendship where the student volunteers work with problem 
children on a one-to-one basis; and a bowling program for 
trainable mentally retarded children 12 years and older. 



22. 



ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH RESEARCH 

Programs which are successful in one city sometimes fail 
in another. Thus all programs for the disadvantaged may be 
regarded as experimental. 

Whether or not they are formal research projects, such 
programs affect the university's research. Problems are defined, 
causes projected and analyzed, and solutions proposed. The best 
of these solutions are initiated in the community or on the campus. 
The results of these "field trials" are evaluated. 

These programs seek to solve some part of the basic social 
problems through answering one or more of three basic questions: 

— Which educational methods are most successful, for 
both advantaged and disadvantaged, in the school and in the 
community? 

— How can the university best aid the community? 

— What should be the university's role in these programs? 
Should it be a leader, a teacher, a partner, a consultant, a bank, 
or just a meeting place? 

No program is aimed specifically at answering the third 
question. The results of all programs will help provide its answer. 
1. Developing Educational Methods 

The Engelmann-Becker program, which is used in the federal 
government's Follow Through program for underprivileged children, 
was developed through a research project at this University of 
Illinois cam.pus. 



23. 



The government- sponsored Follow Through picks up where 
Head Start ends, continuing through third grade the special 
individualized attention received in Head Start. 

More than 5,000 children in classrooms ranging from a 
Sioux Indian reservation in South Dakota to the Ocean-Hill-Brownsville 
district of New York are learning reading, writing, arithmetic and 
science with the help of the Engelmann-Becker program. 

Research in the College of Education is coordinated through 
the Bureau of Educational Research, the Center for Instructional 
Research and Curriculum Evaluation, the Curriculum Laboratory and 
University High School, and the Institute for Research on 
Exceptional Children. 

Lab schools such as University High School and the 
Washington Laboratory School are utilized to develop and test 
improved instructional materials and techniques. Many of these 
methods are quite successful in working with under-achievers and 
slow learners. 

The research and educational programs at the Col. Wolfe 
School have received national acclaim for their work in providing 
preschool education for the economically disadvantaged. 

The National Laboratory on Early Childhood Education is 
located in Urbana-Champaign. 

Another major educational research facility on campus is 
the Children's Research Center, a part of the Graduate College. 
Research projects in the Speech and Hearing Clinic and the Psychological 
Clinic, both in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, may also 
benefit the disadvantaged. 



24, 



Local nutrition classes for mother and baby are part of 
a home economics education research project. This project has 
three research goals: to develop new ways to teach nutrition, 
to develop adult education for the disadvantaged and to develop 
nutrition materials that they can read. 

The Cooperative Extension Service was the most successful 
in working with the farmer and the rural population. Will this 
pattern be as successful in the city? The Expanded Nutrition 
Program, developed by the service, is using the same technique 
of community leadership and demonstrations. 

At the university level the Special Educational Opportunities 
Program can be considered experimental in both teaching methods 
and supportive services. Some of the techniques developed for 
the special sections have been adopted in other classrooms. 

Research in developing instructional materials for the 
college classroom is coordinated by the campus Office of Instructional 
Resources. The office aids faculty members in developing, using 
and evaluating instructional procedures, including technological 
innovations such as television, programmed instruction, films and 
other audio-visual techniques. 

Through these and other programs the university seeks to 
discover and develop better educational techniques at all levels 
of education, from infancy to adulthood. 

Both pure and applied research in a large number of areas 
on campus have educational benefits that cut across social, economic 
and racial lines. 



25. 



Examples include research into reading ability and levels, 
teaching methods, improving communications, mathematical concepts, 
child care and nutrition. 

Research currently under way also deals with early 
childhood education, the effectiveness of preschool education, 
improving reading skills, improving writing skills, methods of 
adult education and social behavior. 

There are also a number of on-going research programs in 
learning problems, developmental problems and human relations in 
the departments of psychology, educational psychology, anthropology 
and other departments. 
2 . Discovering Ways to Aid the Community 

The College of Commerce and Business Administration plans 
to hold a Conference on Investment in People late in the fall. 
The conference will be centered on ways in which business, government 
and educational institutions might cooperate to enhance educational 
and employment opportunities of the disadvantaged. Participants 
are to include approximately 50 businessmen and 50 from the various 
branches of government at the state and national levels and 
educational institutions. 

This is the only program that directly addresses itself to 
this question. But each program aimed at helping the disadvantaged 
attacks the problem in the way its sponsors feel will be most 
successful. Thus a comparison of all programs and their achievements 
might come up with the most promising form of aid which the 
university could provide the disadvantaged community. 



26. 



ATTACKING THE PROBLEM THROUGH SERVICE 
Serving the Community 

Service to the Urbana-Champaign black community is 
centered around three basic goals: 

— Providing cultural opportunities. 

— Developing community leadership, 

— Opening avenues of communication. 

Many cultural and social events on the campus are open 
to the community. Special efforts are often made to invite 
members of the black community to events that are of particular 
interest to them. 

The role of the local resident in many events is changing 
from that of a member of the audience to that of active participant. 
Members of the Urbana-Champaign community add their voices to the 
Black Chorus / their beat to the Afro-American Percussion Group/ 
their steps to the Afro-American Dance Group. 

Many of these events are coordinated through the university's 
Office of Student Programs and Services (SPAS) and the Afro-American 
Commission. The Afro-American Commission sponsors three types of 
programs: the Afro-American Academic Program, which is responsible 
for Afro-American perspective and emphasis in the academic activities 
conducted on the campus; the Afro-American Cultural Program; and the 
Afro-American Public Service Program, which is concerned with 
community-related matters. 

SPAS has initiated a series of community teenage dances, 
utilizing community facilities and resources as well as those on the 
campus. Other events under the "action now" program during 



27. 



the second semester last spring were the "Soul Bowl" basketball 
tournament, a skate party at the Douglass Center, a cabaret-dance-variety 
show, a "Soul Dinner", a "Soul Picnic" and a work day in the 
community to assist senior citizens in spading and planting their 
gardens. 

The first campus Black Mothers Day celebration in May, 
held in conjunction with campus Mothers Day activities, was a joint 
university-community venture. All but one of the local black 
churches joined the Black Chorus for the evening gospel sing, 
presented to a capacity audience in the Great Hall of the Krannert 
Center for the Performing Arts. Visiting parents were then 
invited to Sunday morning services in the local black churches. 

University-community relations include all aspects of the 
campus and the community, including the relationship of black 
university students to the local blacks. Last year the three 
black fraternities on campus opened all house social events to 
all from the black community. 

SPAS and the Afro-American Commission cooperate in sponsoring 
many cultural events in the community. Some of these joint 
ventures include the Uhuru performers, which combine African and 
American music and dance, and a cultural series of dance and 
entertainment. Many events are presented at community centers and 
in local parks as well as on the university campus. 



28. 



When the Afro-American Commission built a stage for 
these performances, it located the stage in King Park so that 
it can be used for community events as well. 

Several events at the Afro-American Cultural Center, an 
agency of the Afro-American Commission, are also open to the 
community. The center's programs and workshops for writers, 
dancers and musicians are not restricted to students. Its 
cultural programs, often presented by visiting speakers and 
artists, are also open to the community. 

Black Awareness, a program involving a series of 
lectures by visiting authorities, open to the public and 
extensively advertised, as well as a course for regular enrolled 
students, has been sponsored by the Colleges of Liberal Arts and 
Sciences and Fine and Applied Arts. It will be repeated in 
spring 1971. 

Through these projects and assistance to community 
organizations such as the Community Advocacy Depot and the 
Progress Association for Economic Development, the university hopes 
to develop leadership in the community. 

Many of these people are already leaders in the black 
community. Much of the effort is in helping them obtain the skills 
and knowledge required to become leaders of the entire community, 
so that their businesses can be comparable to similar white 
businesses. In addition, black youth need the opportunity to 
learn how to become leaders. The students leaders in integrated 
high schools are usually white, and black students often do not have 
the opportunity to develop their leadership skills. 



29. 



This fall SPAS is working more with adults from the 
north end, helping them become familiar with the campus and 
what it has to offer for their families and community. 

Assisting the community "help itself" also comes through 
university assistance to local organizations in preparing and 
filing funding proposals and in finding financial aid and other 
resources. 

Every human relations program has an affect on communication 
between the university and the poor community, between black and 
white, whether or not opening avenues of communications is a 
primary goal of that program. 

Increasing Black Opportunities 

1. Educational Opportunity 

Programs aimed at increasing educational opportunity for 
university students, for local children from infancy through 
high school and for adults in the community are discussed in the 
education section of this pamphlet. 

2. Housing 

All approved housing for undergraduates and all housing 
listed by the university must be open to individuals of all races. 
Each landlord must sign a pledge before his facilities are approved 

or listed. 

This requirement covers the entire spectrum of campus 
housing, from university and private residence halls to fraternities 
and sororities, independent houses and rooming houses. 



30. 



University philosophy on housing discrimination is that 
the offense is against the university, not the complainant. The 
complainant is just a witness of the offense. 

To follow up charges of discrimination the university 
established the Housing Review Committee in 1964. During the 
1969-70 academic year the committee investigated eight complaints 
of discrimination. Of these, charges were dismissed without hearings 
on three complaints, the landlord was found guilty as charged in 
three cases and sanctions were recommended against a fraternity 
found to have discriminated. A hearing has not been held on the 
eighth case. 

Sanctions against those found to have discriminated 
include loss of university recognition as approved housing and 
loss of all privileges to list with the university any housing 
associated with the landlord either as owner or manager. In addition, 
the board recommends that complainants report the discrimination 
to the local housing review board. 

At the request of the black community, the university hired 
an outside firra to do a survey of the university's impact on housing 
in Urbana-Champaign, especially on low-income housing. 

This report, which showed the university to have a major 
effect, has been reviewed by the Technical Advisory Task Force of 
the Ad Hoc Policy Committee on Community Housing Development. 



31. 



The committee works with the Concerned Citizens Committee 
and other local interest groups and agencies in providing technical 
assistance in community housing development efforts. 
3 . Employment 

Equal employment opportunity is a major concern of the 
university. President David D. Henry this summer announced 
creation of a University Council on Equal Opportunity to "provide 
a new level of attention and involvement, a systematic means of 
communication and a continuing mechanism for planning, coordination 
and evaluation." This council will be concerned with equal 
opportunity in all phases of the university. 

There are three areas of work in the university's equal 
employment opportunity efforts on this campus. 

— To open jobs to qualified blacks and members of other 
minority races. 

— To recruit persons who are qualified for employment on 
the campus but who traditionally have been hesitant to apply. 

— To help educationally disadvantaged persons become qualified 
for university employment. 

The Affirmative Action program for nonacademic employment, 
now directly responsible to the Chancellor's Office, increases the 
number of jobs open to blacks and members of other minority races 
through the institution of trainee programs, the elimination of 
administrative barriers, and intense cooperation with employing units 
on campus . 



32. 



Each unit has an affirmative action officer to develop 
and execute programs for his unit, working through the Affirmative 
Action for Equal Opportunity Office. 

When a vacancy occurs, the employing unit contacts the 
Personnel ServicesOf fice , which sends over the top three candidates 
on the list. Positions on the list are determined by competitive 
examinations, which have been designed to be free of any racial bias. 
The affirmative action officer seeks to insure the employing units 
do not discriminate when selecting from qualified applicants. 

After a black is employed, the affirmative action officer in 
the unit works to resolve any problems which may arise through 
his employment. 

This fall greater efforts will be made to increase the number 
of minority workers on campus construction projects. New contracts 
will have stricter requirements on equal employment opportunity, 
including a clause requiring contractors to document good faith 
efforts to employ blacks. 

The university is also negotiating with local unions to let 
it gain some control over the selection of apprentices to be employed 
by the operations and maintenance division on the campus. 

One of the main difficulties in increasing the number of 
minority employees is that traditionally few of those who are 
qualified apply. In addition to opening up job opportunities, 
the university actively recruits members of minority groups for these 
positions. Black employees of the university and those associated 
with the Affirmative Action program work with community leaders and 
organizations in the identification and recruitment of qualified 
applicants . 



I 



I 



33. 



This recruitment even extends to the high schools. One 
of the duties of the Office of Equal Employment Opportunity Related 
to Construction, being established this fall/ vill be to visit 
local schools to encourage students to get their diplomas and to 
recruit them for the construction trades. 

The university maintains a list of blacks wanting to work 
in the construction trades. 

For several years the university has been working with 
local trades unions and the black community in developing 
pre-apprentice training programs. 

As of June 8, 44 learner, apprentice and trainee programs 
in many areas of employment were approved for this campus. Nine 
more were pending approval, and a tenth has been proposed. All 
are aimed at increasing employment opportunity by helping blacks 
qualify. 

The list includes 32 learner programs, of which five are 
pending; nine apprentice programs, of which four have been 
tentatively approved, four are pending and one is to be submitted; 
and 13 trainee programs, all approved. 

Largest and best-known is the Clerical Learner Program, 
which has graduated 50 since it was started in December 1968. The 
program is aimed at training unskilled women to the point where 
they can pass the civil service examination for the Clerk-Typist I 
position. 

Under the program the learners attend classes for half days 
and work in the department offices the other half. Their salaries 
are paid by the department. 



34. 



In the classes the learners receive instruction in power 
typing, office techniques and personal grooming. The program will 
be expanded this fall to include transcribing and stenography. 
A curriculum for the Clerk-Typist II position, next on the scale, 
is currently being developed. 

This program has been well accepted by the local community. 
There were 60 names on the waiting list at the end of the summer. 



35, 



FROM GOWN TO TOWN 
Degrees of Involvement 

There are three levels of human relations programs, 
according to type and amount of involvement. 

The first level is the infrequent or one-time program, 
such as a Christmas party for a group of children. Other 
examples are collecting food, clothing, toys, money, etc., 
for distribution at Thanksgiving or Christmas. A favorite 
project, especially for organized houses, is to take a group 
or class to the circus or some other event on campus. Because 
this is a one-time or infrequent venture with a group sponsoring 
activities or doing something for another group, there is 
little individual contact. 

At the second level continuing programs are developed 
on campus or elsewhere and then brought into the community. 
Local involvement may be limited to attending and participating 
in the meetings or programs. If there is little community 
participation in the planning and control of the program, it 
may not be accepted very well in the community. However, 
these programs can be successful, especially if local participation 
is encouraged and increased once the programs are under way. 

The third type is a cooperative effort, often with 
the black community providing the leadership and the planning 
and the university taking the role of professional consultant. 



36. 



The university offers its resources to aid in developing 
programs at the request of the community. 

This might include aid in preparing bid documents, in 
helping with engineering studies, in decorating or landscaping 
new housing developments, or in assisting local organizations 
in preparing applications for funding from the federal government 
or private foundations. 

To Go To Town 

The opportunity is available for anyone at the University 
of Illinois who desires to contribute to programs for the 
disadvantaged. 

Students can work individually through Volunteer Illini 
Projects, the Office of Student Programs and Services, campus 
organizations or churches. If their service is related to their 
field of study they can contact an interested professor or their 
department about the possibility of gaining field experience for 
credit or initiating a class project. 

Faculty and employees also can volunteer their services 
through these and other organizations, such as service groups, 
churches, the United Fund, etc. 

Working to solve the basic social problems of poverty, racial 
discrimination, insufficient education, unequal job opportunities 
and substandard housing is a major concern of the entire university. 
Everyone on the campus—administrator, professor, student or employee- 
can participate according to his special interests, desires and 
ability.